This simple and cost effective test has saved countless lives since its introduction by the treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The Pap test as part of a national screening program. Conservative treatment of cin by local ablation or excision of the abnormal epithelium significantly reduces the risk of invasive disease. Occult cancer before a tumor is visible and most often at an early and treatable stage, can also be detected by cytology. Although cytology tests are sometimes conducted during the investigation of women who are symptomatic or have a clinically evident cancer, these tests can be unreliable, there is an increased risk of the sample being considered negative cytology or inadequate, due to contamination by blood, inflammatory cells and necrotic debris associated with invasive cancer, obscuring the abnormal cells in the smear.
Women with symptoms or signs of invasive cancer should be referred for gynecological investigation regardless of the result of a cytology test. The discovery of hpv as the major causative agent in cervical cancer and its precursors has revolutionized the detection and the role of cytology in the selection process. Although cytology is a sensitive method of detection of recurrence, women who were treated for high quality cinema are at increased risk of cancer and HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology alone to detect recurrence. In many countries, primary screening HPV is introduced because it was found to be more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-quality cinema although its specificity is significantly lower.
This fundamentally changes the role of cytology from a screening to a diagnostic test. However, it does not change the principles of cervical cytology or the vital importance of quality control. Knife cone biopsy and hysterectomy were the only treatments available. LLETZ is now the method of choice although knife cone biopsy, Trachelectomy and even hysterectomy may be performed to extensive lesions, glandular neoplasia and invasive cancer occult. Avoid the risks of treatment, which are related to the depth of excision biopsy, an important factor in cervical screening. The development and introduction of vaccination against HPV, which was approved as a vaccine in 2005, will further revolutionize the practice of cervical cytology, colposcopy and treatment of cervical cancer precursors of the uterus.
Adenocarcinomas usually start in the lower esophagus and squamous cell carcinoma can develop throughout the esophagus. The epidemiology of these types varies considerably. The incidence of esophageal cancer has increased over the last decades, coinciding with a change in the histological type and location of the primary tumor. The cause of the increase incidence and demographic changes is unknown.
Can Cancer be treated by homeopathy, without radiation, chemotherapy and surgery?